Captain Cook, a British explorer, made the discovery of Australia and is well-known for his important 18th-century exploration expeditions. He was also an excellent painter. His artwork made it easier for people to visualise foreign nations, people, and civilizations during those moments before cameras were invented.

James Cook was born in the Yorkshire, England, town of Marton on October 27, 1728. He was raised on a farm and comes from an ordinary family. Cook enlisted in the Navy in 1755 and advanced through the ranks swiftly because of his remarkable chartered knowledge and navigational abilities. He established himself as a proficient surveyor by conducting surveys throughout the shores of Canada and Newfoundland.

James Cook after landing

First Voyage (1768–1771): Cook’s most famous expedition took place during this period when he was given command of the HMS Endeavour. His task was to track down the elusive southern continent (Terra Australis) after watching Venus transit the sky from Tahiti. The eastern coast of Australia and the coastline of New Zealand were mapped as a result of Cook’s South Pacific journey.

Second Voyage (1772–1775): The objectives of Cook’s second expedition were to find Terra Australis and investigate the Antarctic. Despite not finding the continent, he explored the South Pacific islands and made important discoveries in the Southern Ocean.

He witnessed a human sacrifice on the island of Tahiti, in the Pacific.

The third and last voyage of Captain Cook (1776–1779) set out to discover the Northwest Passage, a fictitious sea channel that would circumnavigate North America. He travelled the entire west coast of North America, including Hawaii, even though he was unable to locate the passage before he was killed by the natives in an unexpected attack. It was believed that the natives thought, he and his men brought in some strange diseases such as TB (Tuberculosis).

Cook’s explorations significantly increased European understanding of the Pacific and its islands. His precise cartography of hitherto uncharted regions established the groundwork for ensuing exploration and settlement. Subsequent explorers and navigators relied heavily on Cook’s charts and writings.

Cook’s expeditions had important scientific goals in addition to being purely exploratory. In addition to increasing the precision of navigational charts, he made significant contributions to astronomy, natural history, and mapping.

The explorations led by Captain James Cook are still important in the annals of exploration, and they have left a lasting impression on global perceptions of geography and the Pacific. Even now, his legacy is still honoured and researched.

Memorial Garden in Great Ayton, England

Australians liked him so much and in return, they bought the cottage where he was brought up which was constructed in 1755 in the English village of Great Ayton, North Yorkshire, by the parents of Captain James Cook, James, and Grace Cook. They then dismantled it and piece by piece, brick by brick shipped it to Melbourne in 1934 and reconstructed it.

Captain Cook’s Cottage, is located in the Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne, Australia.